Two bioluminescent diptera: The North American Orfelia fultoni and the Australian Arachnocampa flava. Similar niche, different bioluminescence systems

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2002
Authors:Viviani, V.R., J. Hastings, W., Wilson T.
Journal:Photochemistry and Photobiology
Accession Number:200200191748
Keywords:111839-44-2Q; argon-: 7440-37-1; ascorbic-acid: 50-81-7Q, 121295-11-2Q; Appalachian-Mountains: USA-, 21730-91-6Q, 42530-29-0Q, 50909-86-9Q, 55779-48-1Q, 58947-91-4Q, 61369-27-5Q, 61869-41-8Q, 61969-99-1Q, 61970-00-1Q, 62213-54-1Q, 62624-30-0Q; dithiothereitol-: DTT-; ethyl-acetate: 141-78-6; luciferase-: 9014-00-0Q, 7273-34-9Q, 76106-81-5Q; luciferin-: 2591-17-5Q, 94587-45-8Q, Animalia-; Arachnocampa-flava (Diptera-): Australian-, Arthropoda-, Arthropods-, Bioenergetics-: Biochemistry-and-Molecular-Biophysics; Radiation-Biology; [75314-] Diptera-, bioluminescent-, bioluminescent-; Keroplatus- (Diptera-): bioluminescent-; Orfelia-fultoni (Diptera-): North-American, Insecta-, Insects-, Invertebrata-, Invertebrates-; caudal-lantern; ATP-: 56-65-5Q, larvae-; Diptera-: Animals-, Nearctic-region; 56-65-5Q; 42530-29-0Q; 94587-45-8Q; 111839-44-2Q; 7440-37-1; 50-81-7Q; 62624-30-0Q; 141-78-6; 9014-00-0Q; 61869-41-8Q; 61969-99-1Q; 61970-00-1Q; 62213-54-1Q; 76106-81-5Q; 2591-17-5Q;, North-America

Orfelia fultoni is the only bioluminescent dipteran (Mycetophilidae) found in North America. Its larvae live on stream banks in the Appalachian Mountains. Like their Australasian relative Arachnocampa spp., they build sticky webs to which their bioluminescence attracts flying prey. They bear two translucent lanterns at the extremities of the body, histologically distinct from the single caudal lantern of Arachnocampa spp., and emit the bluest bioluminescence recorded for luminescent insects (lambdamax=460 nm versus 484 nm from Arachnocampa). A preliminary characterization of these two bioluminescent systems indicates that they are markedly different. In Orfelia a luciferin-luciferase reaction was demonstrated by mixing a hot extract prepared with dithiothreitol (DTT) under argon with a crude cold extract. Bioluminescence is not activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but is strongly stimulated by DTT and ascorbic acid. Using gel filtration, we isolated a luciferase fraction of apprx140 kDa and an additional high molecular weight fraction (possibly a luciferin-binding protein) that activated bioluminescence in the presence of luciferase and DTT. The Arachnocampa luciferin-luciferase system involves a 36 kDa luciferase and a luciferin soluble in ethyl acetate under acidic conditions; the bioluminescence is activated by ATP but not by DTT. The present findings indicate that the bioluminescence of O. fultoni constitutes a novel bioluminescent system unrelated to that of Arachnocampa.

Thu, 2007-03-01 13:45 -- vblago
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